The cactus family is known for its prickly spines, which are actually altered leaves. The kind of leaves that a maple or oak tree has are not present on cacti. But in the distant past, they might have had leaves that were at least somewhat more similar. Due to the fact that they aid the plants in surviving in hot, dry situations, those leaves eventually changed into the prickly spines we see on cactuses today.
“They could serve as a defensive strategy to prevent herbivores, or animals that consume plants, from consuming the cactus. But spines also produce shade! “Kimberlie McCue says.
“When you are covered with spines, those spines are throwing shadows on the cactus’ body as the sun moves across the sky. They are tiny umbrellas for shade.”
All cacti are native to arid regions, and some can even survive in dry climates. How do they acquire water to exist, then? Kimberlie informs us that these plants can be found close to the water.
“There will be fog coming off the ocean in the morning. Water condenses on those spines, forming tiny droplets, which then flow down the spine, to the plant’s body, to the soil, and to the roots.”
As they hold the soil in place and offer shelter to birds and other creatures, cactuses are also crucial components of their desert ecosystems. In exchange, such animals and birds assist in pollinating the cactus flowers. Cacti are a significant local source of food for people.
Cactuses are unfortunately threatened by people who illegally steal natural plants from their surroundings. According to Kimberlie McCue, being cautious when purchasing cactus plants is one method to ensure that cacti remain healthy and numerous. Before you buy, find out where the cactus came from and confirm that the vendor is being a responsible steward of these plants.
Why are cactus thorns so sharp?
I had always thought cacti had spines for defense, but it turns out they serve a variety of other purposes and are quite extraordinary adaptations. In a variety of intriguing ways, they aid cacti in surviving the challenges of desert life.
The purpose of cacti’s spines By serving a variety of purposes, spines enable cactus to survive and even thrive in arid settings. They shield the plant from predators, offer shade, aid in temperature control, lessen water loss, and even encourage the plant to spread and procreate.
Continue reading to learn more about how cactus use their spines to help them survive and grow in the harsh environments where they reside.
Why are there thorns on cactus leaves?
The prickly pear cactus found in Mexico has the potential to become a fantastic energy source in the future.
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Cacti are among my favorite plant species, and their needles undoubtedly make them distinctive. In many respects, the needles that cover cactus are essential to their survival. Since many cacti are found in dry environments, these plants need to store a lot of water in order to thrive. In fact, according to scientists, water makes up between 90 and 94 percent of a cactus plant. Cacti are ideal treats for thirsty species due to their high water content. Animals that consume cactus in the wild include quail, kangaroo rats, sheep, desert tortoises, as well as a variety of insects. In order to stop thirsty or hungry animals from eating or harming the plant, cacti contain needles.
Additionally, you could see that the color and texture of cactus spines might vary. While some spines are fluffy, others are stiff. The color of the spines can also vary, from white to gray to pink! Because of these variations in spine color and texture, cactus can more effectively blend into their surroundings (i.e. camouflage). Therefore, a second reason cacti have needles is to enable them to conceal from harmful species.
Heat is a significant issue in desert regions where there are many cacti. The needles of a cactus can offer protection from the sun so that it can thrive in these scorching temperatures. Although it may not seem like a single needle may offer much shade, several cacti species have needles that are grouped closely together. The plant is shaded by these spine clusters, which resemble small umbrellas. These spines provide shade for the cactus, which helps keep water from evaporating and causing water loss.
All in all, cactus use their spines as protective and hiding mechanisms against potential predators. Additionally, they give the plant shade, which keeps it cooler and prevents water loss.
Can cacti exist without their spikes?
The majority of cacti contain spines, and having them can help you determine how healthy your plants are. Your cactus won’t appear as attractive if it is losing its spikes or leaves, and depending on the cause, it could even pass away. You may learn the causes of your cactus losing its spines (thorns) or leaves in this post, how to halt it, and how to encourage your cactus to produce new spines.
Pests (particularly mealybug), a lack of nutrients, or fertilization are a few of the main causes of a cactus losing its spines or leaves. Less frequent causes include burns, excessive watering, and inadequate sunlight.
What happens if you remove a cactus’ spikes?
While removing the spines makes a cactus less thorny, it can also make the plant look unattractive. The different types of spines include hair-like, flattened and ridged, hooked, straight, bristly, comb-shaped, papery, feathery, or twisted ones. Black, tan, orange, red, pink, gray, yellow, golden, or white are some of the available hues. The majority of cacti contain two different kinds of spines: a thicker central spine that faces the center of the areole and thinner radial spines that encircle it. Glochids, the tiny, barbed spines at the base of the bigger spines of prickly pears (Opuntia spp. ), are among the most hated spines. Depending on the species, prickly pears can grow in USDA zones 3b through 11.
Published: January 3, 2013
The way that the seasons affect how we view (and value) plants is one of the fascinating parts of enjoying them. The seasons that plants are most appealing to most ardent gardeners are likely to be spring, summer, or fall, and this is for obvious reasons. However, certain deciduous (often woody) plants have benefits that are most noticeable in the winter after the leaves have fallen. This is when unique plant characteristics that were concealed during the growing season become evident, bringing interest to the landscape.
The whitish-colored bark on the higher branches of the American sycamore is one illustration of the aforementioned. Compared to the summer, it is considerably more noticeable when the leaves have fallen. The same might be said for plants like cranberry-bush viburnum, winterberry holly, and flowering crab apple that produce bright fruit. Thorns, spines, and prickles are distinctive appendages some plants grow that make them more intriguing (if not appealing) throughout the winter, despite being less visually dominating than the preceding examples.
Most people mistakenly believe that any plant with a pointy protrusion is a thorn. This makes sense considering that the majority of people are familiar with roses and the pointed (and occasionally painful) “thorns” they contain. However, roses only have prickles rather than actual thorns. Depending on where in the plant they originate, these pointed projections are classified differently in a botanical sense.
The term “thorn” is only properly used to describe a sharp-pointed structure that is a modified branch. At the leaf axils, thorns frequently emerge from the main stem. Firethorn (Pyracantha), hawthorn, and Japanese blooming quince are thorny landscape plants.
A “spine” is a pointed protrusion that grows from a leaf, stipule, or other leaf component rather than from a branch. The most notorious woody plant with spines, which frequently exist in compound form, is arguably the honey locust. This species’ spines are so dangerous that a botanical version without them is employed for landscaping. Barberry and black locust are two additional common landscaping plants with spines.
In cacti, the plant’s entire leaf gets changed into a spine. This particular adaptation shields the succulent stem of the plant from animals that might exploit it as food or a source of water in addition to decreasing water loss by limiting leaf surface area.
Only the edges of the leaves of other plants have spines. Good examples of the latter include Oregon grape-holly, American holly, and English holly.
A prickle is the third kind of pointy protrusion that can be seen on plants. Prickles are expansions of the cortex and epidermis that grow from stem tissue. A prickle sounds less dangerous than a thorn or a spine, possibly because it almost rhymes with the word “tickle.” Sometimes this is not the case. The rose is unquestionably the most common garden plant with prickles, and most ardent gardeners have experienced more than one painful or unlucky brush with its sharp protrusions. Other examples of prickle-bearing plants include devil’s walking stick (Aralia spinosa) and prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum).
The function of thorns, spines, and prickles in nature is to defend plants against potential predators. Any intelligent herbivore won’t likely attempt to nibble at a species like barberry more than once. Sadly, depending on the type, growing plants in the landscape that have thorns, spines, or prickles might be dangerous to some extent.
The majority of plants with thorns, spines, or prickles are safe when utilized as backdrop or border plants or when tree branches are pruned well above head height. They also provide the winter landscape a distinctive character and can act as a solid barrier to increase the security of our house and its belongings. However, they can be a safety issue when positioned in the environment where people frequently walk or drive by, especially to youngsters and pets. By choosing, arranging, and maintaining them with care, you can prevent unpleasant encounters and improve the landscape’s visual appeal.
Why are cacti so uncomfortable?
Anyone who has come into contact with a jumping cholla cactus can attest to the fact that it is both excruciatingly painful and challenging to resolve because the cactus’ spines are notoriously difficult to remove.
Cactus spines have a variety of purposes, including defense and the storage of essential water in arid regions, although some are considerably more difficult to remove than others. Researchers have now determined the cause.
The function of the spines, particularly their capacity to pierce animal skin, was tested by Stephanie Crofts and Philip Anderson of the University of Illinois on six different cactus species. Their findings, which were reported in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, demonstrate that the microstructural characteristics that enhance a spine’s capacity to pierce flesh also raise the barrier to removal.
With their shingled, overlapping barbs, cholla and other barbed cactus spines in particular resemble porcupine quills. Compared to non-barbed spines, these barbs more easily pierce and entangle flesh.
According to Anderson in a news statement, “The barbs grab on your muscle fibers, making it tough to remove them.
The two also experimented with golden barrel, brittle prickly pear, and a few other common cactus species in addition to jumping cholla. They pierced skinless chicken breasts, hog shoulders with the skin still on, and a succession of rubbers with various densities to determine the structure of each plant after studying the spines under a scanning electron microscope to learn more about it. According to their experiments, barbed spines function as razor-sharp blades that may readily pierce skin.
According to Anderson, the cholla spine needs to be able to penetrate the target with just a mild brush in order to puncture the target efficiently. ” It must also be quite challenging to remove at the same time.
An up-close look at a Cholla spine reveals its overlapping barbs, which make removing these spines more challenging and unpleasant. (Credit: Wikipedia/Nebarnix)
Stuck On You
Barbed spines, like cholla, emerged out of the chicken breasts with a tissue-coated exterior. The researchers believe that some of the barbs were left behind in the flesh because they did not emerge clean from the pork samples.
The plains prickly pear’s spines checked out took the most effort to remove from chicken breasts. On the other hand, cholla spines proved to be the most difficult to extract from pig tissue; tests revealed that one cholla spine was capable of hooking into flesh with sufficient force to lift half a pound of pork by the skin.
That’s both quite frightening and clever. Cholla spines also have a reproductive function. Chollas have spines that hook onto a person or animal’s muscle fibers so strongly that it frequently tears off a piece of the cactus, which is then moved to a new area and can start growing as a new plant.
What is the name of the cactus’ spikes?
The majority of cactus species lack genuine leaves and branches. They feature tiny bumps called areoles, which are highly modified branches from which spines grow, instead. A cactus’ spines are significantly altered leaves.
However, why would a plant switch from photosynthesizing leaves to spiky protrusions?
Cacti are able to achieve this in part because their stems are capable of photosynthesizing. Like an oak tree, they don’t require leaves. Additionally, they typically grow in places with lots of sunlight!
Why do plants develop spiky leaves or thorns?
The majority of plants that have spines utilize them to defend themselves against predators, despite evidence to the contrary showing that in several plant groups, such as the cacti, the development of spines was primarily motivated by the need to prevent water loss from leaves.
Do spikes re-grow?
The stunning plant known as spike, or Dracaena indivisa “spikes,” has leaves in the shape of swords. Gloves must be worn when handling the leaves because of their sharp edges. The foliage of the evergreen spike plant, not its flowers, is what makes it useful. This plant requires very little upkeep.
Spike can withstand heat. If planted in a mixed border, it can add vertical interest. Spike is a perennial, but if winters are harsh, it won’t grow back. If you plant it in a zone below 7a, you should treat it as an annual or bring it indoors for the winter.