Where Do Blue Roses Grow

By inserting bacteria into the petals of a white rose, a group of scientists claim to have created the first engineered blue rose.

Gardeners have attempted to create blue roses for ages without success. The ability to breed blue roses in gardens may soon be possible thanks to contemporary biotechnology.

What made the breeding possible?

By expressing bacteria-produced pigment-producing enzymes in the white rose’s petals, researchers were able to tint the blossoms blue.

L-glutamine, a typical component of rose petals, may be converted into the blue pigment indigoidine by two bacterial enzymes, according to a study that was published in the journal “American Chemical Society, Synthetic Biology.”

Do blue roses naturally exist in nature?

No, blue roses don’t exist in nature, but florists can make them by dipping cut roses in dye to create blue-hued blossoms.

Researchers from the Suntory Global Innovation Center in Japan had previously created a blue rose in 2004 through a combination of genetic engineering and selective breeding after a laborious 20-year endeavor.

Chinese Academy of Sciences and Tianjin University researchers sought to create a straightforward method for growing a true-blue rose.

The scientists created an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain with two pigment-producing genes from separate bacterial species in order to do this.

Are blue roses a real thing?

Blue roses have been bred by gardeners unsuccessfully for ages. But now, thanks to contemporary biotechnology, it might be possible to finally obtain the elusive blue rose. In order to give white rose blooms a blue hue, scientists have discovered a way to express enzymes from bacteria that produce colour in the petals.


Blue roses have been bred by gardeners unsuccessfully for ages. But now, thanks to contemporary biotechnology, it might be possible to finally obtain the elusive blue rose. In order to give white rose blooms a blue hue, scientists have discovered a way to express enzymes from bacteria that produce colour in the petals. In ACS Synthetic Biology, they publish their findings.

Despite the fact that blue roses don’t exist in nature, florists may make them by dipping cut roses in dye. Additionally, over the course of a laborious 20-year project, biotechnologists used a combination of genetic engineering and selective breeding to create a “blue rose.” The rose, however, is more mauve than blue in hue. Yan Zhang, Yihua Chen, and other team members sought to create a straightforward procedure that could generate a true-blue rose.

The two bacterial enzymes that together can transform L-glutamine, a common component of rose petals, into the blue pigment indigoidine were chosen by the researchers for this purpose. The researchers created an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain with two pigment-producing genes from a separate bacterial species. Because A. tumefaciens easily inserts foreign DNA into plant genomes, it is frequently utilized in plant biotechnology. The bacteria transferred pigment-producing genes to the rose genome when the scientists injected the modified bacterium into a white rose petal, and blue color spread from the injection point. The team claims that the rose grown in this study is the first manufactured blue rose in the world, despite the color’s fleeting and patchy nature. According to them, the next stage is to genetically modify roses so they can naturally create the two enzymes without the need for injections.

Story Origin:

American Chemical Society materials were provided. There may be length and style edits to the content.

Stories of development>

Since no one could ever successfully develop blue roses through hybridization, the term “blue rose” in English came to mean “the impossible (a non-existent thing)” despite how much people wanted them. But because to cutting-edge biotechnologies and the persistent work of scientists committed to growing blue roses, “the impossible” has now become a reality. Principal Researcher Yukihisa Katsumoto, Ph.D., who is still actively involved in the study as the project leader, Senior General Manager Yoshikazu Tanaka, Ph.D., Researcher Noriko Nakamura, Ph.D., and Senior General Manager Yoshikazu Tanaka, Ph.D. discussed their passion and aspirations that contributed to the development of blue roses.

To generate blue roses, two technical challenges have to be overcome. Among the tens of thousands of genes found in blue flowers, one was to “isolate genes (blue genes) necessary to synthesis a blue pigment (delphinidin).” The second was to “create the techniques for introducing these genes to rose cells and producing genetically modified roses from these cells.” Since blue genes might be patented, it was especially important to address the first problem of isolating them before competitors and submit an application for the gene’s patent.

The task of creating “blue roses,” which stand for the impossibility, began. Yoshikazu Tanaka, Ph.D., Senior General Manager

Although there are numerous plants that naturally produce blue blooms, our research team initially chose a petunia that has a dark violet hue in order to separate blue genes. This was because the petunia had previously acted as a model plant for the study of floral pigments and their production, including anthocyanin, and the following information had accumulated:

– Blue genes are cytochrome P450 type hydroxylases, which are liver detoxifying enzymes.

To find the two blue petunia genes, we chose 300 potential gene types among the 30,000 or so petunia gene types that exist. Our initial strategy was to test if the suggested genes were in fact blue genes by introducing them into petunias and observing changes in bloom color. To see a color change using this method, flowers had to bloom first and take several months to do so. We therefore chose to transfer the candidate genes of blue genes to yeast instead of plants and assess their enzymatic activities in yeast in order to shorten the time needed to achieve results. With the use of this technique, we were able to evaluate the activity of several genes and receive results in just one week.

The happiest period in my research career was when we identified blue genes. Yoshikazu Tanaka, Ph.D., Senior General Manager

1994 Petunia blue genes were added to roses, and the flowers opened up, but the roses lacked any blue tint.

Genes can be inserted into plants using a variety of techniques. We used an approach to introduce them in the Blue Rose Project that involved the use of the “Agrobacterium” soil bacterium. This bacterium is utilized in the gene transfer of many plants because it has the capacity to convey its own genes into plant cells. It is vital to optimize plant hormones as well as types and quantities of nutrients in order to choose only cells that have received the genes after transfer and regenerate them into the plant body of roses. “Tissue culture” refers to the effort done to carry out this method with a plant in a test tube under sterile conditions.

In the case of roses, the time between the introduction of genes and blooming is roughly one year. We need to create as many genetically modified roses as we can because how well the added genes function varies from one genetically modified rose to another. By rose variety, there are also significant differences in gene introduction efficiency. Consequently, we kept performing tissue cultures while learning from our mistakes.

We were finally successful in introducing genes to red roses. In 1994, roses with two different blue petunia gene varieties were initially opened. Despite the introduction of the genes without a doubt, the flowers’ color remained red and no blue pigment was found.

Even after using numerous promoters (DNA sequence regulatory gene expression) to drive the petunia blue genes, color changes or delphinidin were not noticed. As a result, we decided to breed blue genes into roses from sources other than petunias. In order to breed blue roses, we isolated blue genes from a variety of blue flowering plants, including gentian, butterfly pea, and torenia. We tried numerous times, but only “roses with blue genes but without blue pigments” blossomed.

We even thought that blue pigments in roses would break down. Yoshikazu Tanaka, Ph.D., Senior General Manager

Although we encountered several setbacks, each one served as a valuable lesson for the future Principal Researcher Yukihisa Katsumoto Ph.D.

We were unable to reap the rewards of our labor, and the participants in this enterprise continued to experience hardship. The achievement of the creation of blue carnations that had undergone genetic modification gave the researchers hope. Petunia blue genes performed as expected in carnations but poorly in roses. The blue “delphinidin” pigments accumulated, changing the color of flowers from pink to blue.

In 1997, these flowers, known as “Moonseries,” were first sold in Japan, and since then, the variety has grown. Popularity has grown for these graceful and lovely blooms, which in the language of flowers denote “everlasting bliss.”

The first commercially available genetically altered flowers are called Moonseries. Currently, these blue carnations are grown in Ecuador and Columbia and sold largely in the USA, however they are also available in several other nations and in Europe. Six types with various dark and light color combinations are offered for sale in Japan. Currently, some types use pansy blue genes in addition to petunia blue genes.

According to senior general manager and Ph.D. Yoshikazu Tanaka, “blue carnations” were created employing a gene in addition to the blue gene.

Are blue roses the most uncommon?

America’s favorite flower, the rose, has been around for more than 35 million years. The genus Rosa and family Rosaceae contain perennial flowering plants, including the rose. The Rosa genus has more than 300 species, countless variations, nearly every color, and a variety of forms. Roses are a popular addition to gardens and landscapes because they are a worldwide symbol of beauty and love. Roses are stunning cut flowers for any occasion and are loved for their many hues and well-known aroma. The Blue Rose is the most uncommon and difficult to find color of rose.

Exists a black rose?

Black roses don’t exist in nature, but plant breeders have been able to make some varieties’ colors darker. Rosa ‘Almost Black’ is the flower in this illustration. As you can see, the cultivar name is illogical as the hue is simply dark red. By dipping the stems of flowers in colored water, florists can change the appearance of the flowers to match the occasion (consider green carnations for St. Patrick’s Day).

So what do black roses symbolize in the language of flowers? Black roses can have a variety of meanings. Additionally, if you intend to send someone a symbolic message, be sure to include additional cues to prevent message misunderstanding.

We list a handful of the potential meanings of “black roses” below. They may represent:

  • Death (actual)
  • Death (metaphorical: for example, the end of something; a significant life change)
  • Revenge
  • Resistance
  • grief, despair
  • Mystery
  • Evil (as in the dark side of our psyches)

Other motives for purchasing or sending black roses include:

  • The hue is bold, cool, and minimalistically attractive.
  • They appreciate Gothic aesthetics and other comparable subcultures and lifestyles.

If you want to know the meaning of receiving or gifting black flowers, you must take the recipient and the situation into account. There are so many possible outcomes. Therefore, if someone sends you black roses—someone you know to adore that hue because it’s trendy or eye-catching—it could not be out of malice, retaliation, or the desire to end a relationship.

Juliet Rose (Scientific Name Unknown): The Rarest Rose In The World

The Juliet Rose is not only one of the world’s rarest flowers; it is also the world’s rarest rose because it took rose breeder David Austin 15 years to produce the rose in England. He also spent a staggering $4.3 million doing it. The Juliet Rose is a variety of tea rose with petals that are peach and apricot in color. When they are fully bloomed, they open to show tiny blossoms in the center.

Fun information about Juliet Roses:

In 2006, it made its premiere at the prestigious Chelsea Flower Show in London.

Ghost Orchid (Dendrophylax Lindenii): Florida’s Endangered Flower

The Ghost Orchid, so named because of the way its petals curve, is one of the world’s rarest flowers because it needs high humidity and temperatures to thrive, making it nearly hard to grow it outside of its natural environment.

The plant does not have leaves, does not produce its own food, and does not rely on photosynthesis. To obtain enough energy, it needs to be connected to another plant. The stalk and blooms have white petals and a green appearance.

The Bahamas, Florida, and Cuba are home to ghost orchids, which only bloom for three weeks from April to August. Even if you approach the flower closely enough, you might not be able to identify a Ghost Orchid. The Ghost Orchid is becoming progressively rarer due to the destruction of the majority of its natural habitat.

Fun information about ghost orchids:

When in bloom, the ghost orchid, a rare flower, emits a scent resembling soap.

Fire Lily (Gloriosa Superba): Zimbabwe’s National Flower

Although the Fire Lily, often called the Flame Lily, is not a particularly rare flower, it is rapidly turning endangered in some areas. The Fire Lily has a distinctive trumpet-shaped flower with petals that are red and orange-yellow in color, giving it the appearance of flames.

These flowers are indigenous to tropical regions of Africa and Asia. It’s now a very rare flower in India, and it’s nearly extinct in Odisha and Sri Lanka. Additionally, nations including Australia, the Cook Islands, and French Polynesia consider it to be an invasive species. Even though these blooms are found in the wild, they occasionally appear in private yards.

Fun facts about fire lilies include:

  • It is poisonous to people and can irritate the skin.
  • It has a maximum height of 12 feet.
  • It is employed in medicine.

Chocolate Cosmos (Cosmos Atrosanguineus): The Flower That Smells Like Fresh Chocolate

Given that it has long since gone extinct in the wild, the Chocolate Cosmos has earned a spot on the list of rare flowers in the world. The Chocolate Cosmos is one of the most exquisite uncommon flowers in the world. Its blooms are a deep reddish-brown color and emit a delicious chocolate scent, hence its name. It can reach heights of between 40 and 70 centimeters.

Although endemic to Mexico, this red bloom is no longer found in the wild due to habitat loss. The lovely flower must be cultivated through tissue culture or root division because it does not generate any seeds. Technically, the original bloom no longer exists; only clones do.

Fun information about the Chocolate Cosmos includes:

  • At the conclusion of the summer, the Chocolate Cosmos blooms in the twilight.
  • Since 1902, it has been multiplied through propagation.
  • These flower-growing areas are legally protected.

Kadupul Flower (Epiphyllum Oxypetalum): The Queen Of The Night

One of the rarest flowers in the world is the Kadupul Flower, a cactus blooming that only sometimes blooms. Additionally, it only blooms at night and withers away by day.

The pristine white and star-shaped kadupul blossoms are enormous and exquisite. It primarily grows in the natural, around decomposing waste near trees, and it can reach enormous dimensions of 30 centimeters long and 17 centimeters wide. It also gives off a lovely odor. While some claim that this flower solely grows in Sri Lanka, others assert that it is also present in India, Japan, China, and a number of Latin American nations. However, because it only blooms sometimes and at night, it is nearly impossible to find one in the wild. It is regarded as a unique flower in India and other places due to its alleged exceptional beauty and rarity. Due to their short lifespan and unique growing requirements, these blooms are exceedingly expensive. They are simple to grow, though.

Fun information about Kadupul flowers

  • Japan has a long history with the Kadupul flower, where it is referred to as Gekka Bijin or “beauty beneath the moon.”

Corpse Flower (Titan Arum): The Flower With The Most Foul Smell

Because it only blooms once every few decades, the corpse flower is regarded as one of the rarest flowers in the world. It is often referred to as one of the largest blooms in the world because of its height, which can reach 3.6 meters. There are no stalk, leaves, or roots on this bloom. It also appears to have just one petal, which is fashioned like a cone and is both green on the exterior and burgundy red on the inside. In order to draw flies and carrion beetles, the corpse flower releases an unpleasant aroma while it is in bloom that is comparable to the smell of rotting flesh or meat.

Only Indonesia’s low-lying jungles include corpse flowers. They primarily grow in Sumatra gardens in captivity.

Anecdotes regarding the Corpse flower include:

  • People go to botanical gardens to view and smell the corpse flower since it only blooms once every few decades. Isn’t it odd that someone would invest time and effort on something that smelled like rotten meat?

Jade Vine (Strongylodon Macrobotrys): Member Of The Pea And Bean Family

Because deforestation has brought the jade vine dangerously close to extinction, it is regarded as one of the rarest flowers in the world. The jade vine has a claw-like bloom that can reach a length of three meters. It drapes downward and ranges in color from blue to bright green. The Jade Vine is a native of the Philippines’ tropical rainforests and is a member of the pea and bean family. Due to their difficulty in being reproduced in captivity, these flowers are rapidly approaching extinction. Their main source of pollination comes from bats.

Fun information about the Jade Vine:

At dusk, they supposedly take on a luminous aspect.

Middlemist’s Red (Middlemist Camellia): Only Two Samples Of This Flower Exist In The World

Only two examples of the Middlemist Red flower are known to have ever existed, making it one of the rarest and most exquisite flowers in the world. After being introduced to the UK, the flower appears to have been exterminated in its native China. Although the exact cause of the plant’s extinction in the wild is unknown, it is thought that over-cultivation may have played a significant part.

The Middlemist Red is a lovely rose-like flower with brilliant pink petals (contrary to what the name suggests). The Middlemist’s crimson is actually a type of Camellia flower, despite its rose-like appearance. It originated in China and was transported to London in 1804. Only two Middlemist Red flowers are known to be flourishing in captivity, one at a botanical garden in New Zealand and the other in an English greenhouse. It is now extinct in China.

Fun information about the Middlemist’s Red includes:

  • John Middlemist, a botanist, introduced this red camellia blossom to England, giving it its name.
  • When John Middlemist first introduced these stunning objects to the British public, many of them had already been sold. Therefore, it’s possible that gardens contain more Middlemist’s Red than people are aware of.

The Franklin Tree Flower (Franklinia Alatamaha): One-of-a-kind Only Species Of The Franklinia Genus

Since it hasn’t been in the wild since the early 1800s, the Franklin Tree Flower is considered to be one of the world’s rarest flowers.

It’s a lovely white flower with five petals and bunches of golden yellow stamens in the center. The only member of the Franklinia genus, this cup-shaped blossom is unique and a member of the tea family. Dark green leaves on the plant become red in the fall. A pleasant aroma resembling honeysuckle emanates from the blossoms.

This flower, which was once common in Georgia’s Altamaha River region in the Southeast United States, is now extinct. It is a well-liked garden plant, though. The plant may have become extinct in the wild as a result of a fungus-related illness.

Fun information about the Franklin Tree Flower

  • The seeds that were gathered in the 1700s are the source of all Franklin Tree Flowers that are alive now.